on the other hand the excess volumes v0 exc calculated from eq 2 where ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of pure ponents at all ratures stud are ogous to the behavior obtained for other aqueous and non aqueous mixtures 11 18 in all cases the excess volumes are negative indicating contraction table vw g13 diluted 50 50 antifreeze water by vol calcium chloride water coolant specific heat diagram specific gravity volumetric properties of peg 400 water and peg 400 ethanol mixtures at several ratures and correlation with the jouyban acree model table 3 on the other hand the excess volumes v0 exc calculated from eq 2 where ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of pure ponents at all ratures stud are table vw g13 diluted 60 40 antifreeze water by vol densities of aqueous propylene glycol solutions a paratively smaller decrease in water activities even at high concentrations when pared to polyethylene oxide or polyethylene glycol molecules which to use ethylene or propylene glycol table 1 various concentrations of glycol and water mixtures ct12 and vw g13 diluted with water density over concentration by volume at several ratures viscosity diagram calcium chloride sodium chloride ethylene glycol and propylene glycol viscosity converting chart table vw g13 diluted 20 80 antifreeze water by vol exle calcium chloride water coolant viscosity diagram glycerine glycol water solutions freezing points dowtherm a saturated liquid properties chart calcium chloride water coolant density diagram table 2 solubilities m of glycine dl alanine dl α amino butyric acid and dl nor valine in binary mixtures of ethylene glycol and n n dimethyl formamide liquids dynamic visosities densities of aqueous dipropylene glycol solutions enter image description here table 1 provides a parison of the diffe kinds of coolants their properties and relative on the other hand the excess volumes v0 exc calculated from eq 2 where ρ1 and ρ2 are the densities of pure ponents at all ratures stud are vapor pressure of liquid edit pdf volumetric properties of the water ethylene glycol mixtures in the rature range 278 333 15 k at atmospheric pressure figure 2 plotted experimental density data against fraction of glycerol formal and rature table 2 the viscosity of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol is pared nanofluid viscosity μs versus rature of 60 40 ethylene glycol and water mixture with diffe volume percene of cuo loading density solvent parameters i e values of mean molecular weight ms density ds lectric constant es of the ethylene glycol and n n dimethyl formamide in all cases the density decreases almost linearly as the rature increases except for water which is not linear in the same way density of mixtures m percent e g vs density y 755 76x 754 17 freezing rature of water ant antifreeze protection large table 2 parison of intrinsic viscosity released by huggins and salomon ciuta methods for 8 8 and 2000kda mw at diffe ratures dimethyl oxalate can be converted into ethylene glycol in high yields 94 7 by hydrogenation with a copper catalyst from viscosities of aqueous propylene glycol solutions